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Sampling for Measurement of Odours (Scientific & Technical Report)
by Peter Gostelow and Philip J. Longhurst
1. Errors, Statistics and Sampling
Accuracy and precision, Error, types of error, systematic and random errors, minimisation of errors, mean and standard deviations, reliability of results, confidence interval, comparison of results, student T test, F test, Comparison of two samples (Paired T test), correlation and regression, correlation coefficient and liner regression, Sampling , the basis of sampling, sampling procedure, sampling statistics.
2. Acid Base Equilibria and Buffer Solutions
Acid-base theories, Definition of pH and pH scale (Sorenson and operational definitions), and its significance, Hammett acidity function, pH at elevated temperatures, pH for aqueous solutions of very weak acid and base, pH for salts of weak acid and weak bases, polyprotic acids. Buffer solutions, buffer capacity, applications of buffers, Physiological buffers, buffers for biological and clinical measurements.
3. Theory of Volumetric and Gravimetric Analysis
Introduction, Titrimetric analysis, classifications of reactions in titrimetric analysis, standard solutions, preparation of standard solutions, primary and secondary standards, Indicators, theory of indicators, Acid–base titrations in non-aqueous media. Gravimetric Analysis, Impurities in precipitates, Gravimetric calculations, precipitation equilibria (Solubility product, common ion effect, stoichiometry), organic precipitation.
4. Complexometric equilibria
Introduction, Titration curves, Types of EDTA titrations, Methods of End Point Detection (a)Indicators (b) Instrumental methods of End point detection (Spectrophotometric, Amperometric, Potentiometric, High frequency titrator), Types of Complexometric Titrations (a) Direct Titration (b) Back Titration (c) Replacement titration (d) Indirect Titration (e) Applications of Complexometric Titrations